Ernst Haeckel was a German biologist of the late mid 1800s who made commentary on a large range of issues, ranging from philosophy to development … These remains are among the oldest hominid remains ever found. [citation needed], Haeckel also applied the hypothesis of polygenism to the modern diversity of human groups. ), German zoologist and evolutionist who was a strong proponent of Darwinism and who proposed new notions of the evolutionary descent of human beings. In the United States, Mount Haeckel, a 13,418 ft (4,090 m) summit in the Eastern Sierra Nevada, overlooking the Evolution Basin, is named in his honour, as is another Mount Haeckel, a 2,941 m (9,649 ft) summit in New Zealand; and the asteroid 12323 Haeckel. This species alone (with the exception of the Mongolian) has had an actual history; it alone has attained to that degree of civilisation which seems to raise men above the rest of nature. Haeckel accepted the invitation. From this, Haeckel drew the implication that languages with the most potential yield the human races with the most potential, led by the Semitic and Indo-Germanic groups, with Berber, Jewish, Greco-Roman and Germanic varieties to the fore. Ernst Haeckel was a German biologist, naturalist, and artist who pioneered the practice of using artistic illustrations to capture the likenesses of animals in the wild during the 19th century. [18][19], Haeckel's wife, Agnes, died in 1915, and he became substantially frailer, breaking his leg and arm. In particular, "one and the same, moreover incorrectly interpreted woodcut, is presented to the reader three times in a row and with three different captions as [the] embryo of the dog, the chick, [and] the turtle". Moreover, it is worth mentioning that Haeckel had often overtly recognized the great contribution of educated Jews to the German culture. [36], In his Ontogeny and Phylogeny Harvard paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould wrote: "[Haeckel's] evolutionary racism; his call to the German people for racial purity and unflinching devotion to a 'just' state; his belief that harsh, inexorable laws of evolution ruled human civilization and nature alike, conferring upon favored races the right to dominate others ... all contributed to the rise of Nazism. Ernst Haeckel was born on 16 February 1834, in Potsdam (then part of the Kingdom of Prussia). [46]:269–270, Haeckel's aim was a reformed morphology with evolution as the organising principle of a cosmic synthesis unifying science, religion, and art. [21], Haeckel's affinity for the German Romantic movement, coupled with his acceptance of a form of Lamarckism, influenced his political beliefs. [citation needed], One student did find some remains: a Dutchman named Eugène Dubois searched the East Indies from 1887 to 1895, discovering the remains of Java Man in 1891, consisting of a skullcap, thighbone, and a few teeth. Haeckel took particular care over the illustrations, changing to the leading zoological publisher Wilhelm Engelmann of Leipzig and obtaining from them use of illustrations from their other textbooks as well as preparing his own drawings including a dramatic double page illustration showing "early", "somewhat later" and "still later" stages of 8 different vertebrates. Richardson and Keuck, (Biol. An effective popularizer of science, Haeckel produced numerous tree diagrams, showing evolutionary relationships between different species. With the fall of Ernst Haeckel's Biogenetic Law in the 1920s, the evolutionary study of embryos receded into the intellectual backwaters for decades. [46]:275–276;282–286, The revised 1870 second edition of 1,500 copies attracted more attention, being quickly followed by further revised editions with larger print runs as the book became a prominent part of the optimistic, nationalist, anticlerical "culture of progress" in Otto von Bismarck's new German Empire. Richardson and Keuck say "Unfortunately His's embryos are mostly at later stages than the nearly identical early stage embryos illustrated by Haeckel [top row of Haeckel's drawing]. It was frequently reprinted until 1926. [citation needed], He was one of the first to consider psychology as a branch of physiology. "[37], In his introduction to the Nazi party ideologue Alfred Rosenberg's 1930 book, The Myth of the Twentieth Century, Peter Peel affirms that Rosenberg had indeed read Haeckel. Reynolds, Andrew // History of Science;Jun2008, Vol. The current consensus of anthropologists is that the direct ancestors of modern humans were African populations of Homo erectus (possibly Homo ergaster), rather than the Asian populations exemplified by Java Man and Peking Man. [51] Recent analyses (Richardson 1998, Richardson and Keuck 2002) have found that some of the criticisms of Haeckel's embryo drawings were legitimate, but others were unfounded. At that time, no remains of human ancestors had yet been identified. He was known for his contributions in the scientific realm, including discovering and naming thousands of species, coining different biological terms, and mapping a genealogical tree. In contrast to most of Darwin's supporters, Haeckel put forward a doctrine of evolutionary polygenism based on the ideas of the linguist August Schleicher, in which several different language groups had arisen separately from speechless prehuman Urmenschen (German: proto-humans), which themselves had evolved from simian ancestors. [12] In 1869 he traveled as a researcher to Norway, in 1871 to Croatia (where he lived on the island of Hvar in a monastery),[17] and in 1873 to Egypt, Turkey, and Greece. With each of these human species, language developed on its own and independently of the others. Nazi propaganda guidelines issued in 1935 listed books which popularized Darwin and evolution on an "expunged list". This is so because the growing embryo needs a constant supply of oxygen, and nutrients. The science was named by German biologist Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919), who introduced the term in several works in the 1860s and 1870s, first in German and then in English, inspiring others to develop the science. [77] He was also a pacifist until the First World War, when he wrote propaganda in favor of the war. [46]:270–274, The book sold very well, and while some anatomical experts hostile to Haeckel's evolutionary views expressed some private concerns that certain figures had been drawn rather freely, the figures showed what they already knew about similarities in embryos. 1, pp. Meanwhile, he completed a dissertation in zoology in 1861 at Jena and became privatdozent there. In 1852 Haeckel completed studies at the Domgymnasium, the cathedral high-school of Merseburg. [52][53] There were multiple versions of the embryo drawings, and Haeckel rejected the claims of fraud. Such experiences in marine biology strongly attracted Haeckel toward zoology, but dutifully he took a medical degree, as his family wished, at Berlin in 1857. The published artwork of Haeckel includes over 100 detailed, multi-colour illustrations of animals and sea creatures, collected in his Kunstformen der Natur ("Art Forms of Nature"). [25], Haeckel advanced a version of the earlier recapitulation theory previously set out by Étienne Serres in the 1820s and supported by followers of Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire including Robert Edmond Grant. Omissions? [9][10], Ernst Haeckel was born on 16 February 1834, in Potsdam (then part of the Kingdom of Prussia). Ernst Haeckel’s most popular book is Art Forms in Nature. 1, System der Craspedoten: IN Monographie der Medusen. Haeckel was included by name as a forbidden author. 1: 1–363. He even formally named this missing link Pithecanthropus alalus, translated as "ape man without speech". [69] As a result of the "struggle for existence", it followed that the "lower" races would eventually be exterminated. For a time he practiced medicine; his father then agreed to his traveling to Italy, where he painted and even considered art as a career. [85] Kurt Hildebrandt, a Nazi political philosopher, also rejected Haeckel. He invented new terms, including ontogeny and phylogeny, to present his evolutionised recapitulation theory that "ontogeny recapitulated phylogeny". We welcome any additional information. "Haeckel's Monism and the Birth of Fascist Ideology". [63][64][65] Others have denied the relationship all together. [13] Michael K. Richardson. [12] He then studied medicine in Berlin and Würzburg, particularly with Albert von Kölliker, Franz Leydig, Rudolf Virchow (with whom he later worked briefly as assistant), and with the anatomist-physiologist Johannes Peter Müller (1801–1858). [46]:285–288[49], Later in 1874, Haeckel's simplified embryology textbook Anthropogenie made the subject into a battleground over Darwinism aligned with Bismarck's Kulturkampf ("culture struggle") against the Catholic Church. Darwin had described evolution through the natural selection of accumulated favourable variations that in time formed new species; to Haeckel, however, this was only a beginning, with consequences to be pursued further. He was so precise [31], The creationist polygenism of Samuel George Morton and Louis Agassiz, which presented human races as separately created species, was rejected by Charles Darwin, who argued for the monogenesis of the human species and the African origin of modern humans. Born in Germany in 1834, Ernst Haeckel studied medicine at the University of Berlin and graduated in 1857. The article focuses on the life and contribution of zoologist Ernst Haeckel to the discovery of multi-cellular organisms. It was agreed by all European evolutionists that all vertebrates looked very similar at an early stage, in what was thought of as a common ideal type, but there was a continuing debate from the 1820s between the Romantic recapitulation theory that human embryos developed through stages of the forms of all the major groups of adult animals, literally manifesting a sequence of organisms on a linear chain of being, and Karl Ernst von Baer's opposing view, stated in von Baer's laws of embryology, that the early general forms diverged into four major groups of specialised forms without ever resembling the adult of another species, showing affinity to an archetype but no relation to other types or any transmutation of species. He became a key figure in social darwinism and leading proponent of scientific racism, stating for instance:[34]. [38], In the same line of thought, historian Daniel Gasman states that Haeckel's ideology stimulated the birth of Fascist ideology in Italy and France. One of the first problems with the illustrations in the first row of Haeckel’s comparative embryo plates in his work Anthropogenie is that he drew many embryos, including the human and chick embryos, without either pericardial or heart bulges, where they possess these in reality. In 1862 he was appointed extraordinary (that is, associate) professor of zoology, and that year, when he published his monograph on the Radiolaria, he expressed in it his agreement with Darwin’s theory of evolution; from that time he was a proponent of Darwinism, and he soon was lecturing to scientific and lay audiences on the descent theory. Some scientists of the day suggested[30] Dubois' Java Man as a potential intermediate form between modern humans and the common ancestor we share with the other great apes. It is generally called the Caucasian race, but as, among all the varieties of the species, the Caucasian branch is the least important, we prefer the much more suitable appellation proposed by Friedrich Müller, namely, that of Mediterranese. As a book for the general public, it followed the common practice of not citing sources. Haeckel grew up in Merseburg, where his father was a government official. When Haeckel was a student in the 1850s he showed great interest in embryology, attending the rather unpopular lectures twice and in his notes sketched the visual aids: textbooks had few illustrations, and large format plates were used to show students how to see the tiny forms under a reflecting microscope, with the translucent tissues seen against a black background. … There is certainly, even now, a number of lower vertebrate animals (e.g. Haeckel, E. 1879. In 1852 Haeckel completed studies at the Domgymnasium, the cathedral high-school of Merseburg. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Before macro photography showed us tiny things in great detail, Ernst Heinrich Haeckel (16 February 1834 – 9 August 1919) drew life seen through his microscope. [81], Nazis themselves divided on the question of whether Haeckel should be counted as a pioneer of their ideology. The word ecology was coined by the German zoologist Ernst Haeckel, who applied the term oekologie to the “relation of the animal both to its organic as well as its inorganic environment.” The word comes from the Greek oikos, meaning “household,” “home,” or “place to live.”Thus, ecology deals with the organism and its environment. [12] In 1907 he had a museum built in Jena to teach the public about evolution. Thus they do not inform the debate and may themselves be disingenuous." The occupation of physician appeared less worthwhile to Haeckel after contact with suffering patients. Ernst Haeckel, in full Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel, (born Feb. 16, 1834, Potsdam, Prussia [Germany]—died Aug. 9, 1919, Jena, Ger. [35] In his view, 'Negroes' were savages and Whites were the most civilised: for instance, he claimed that '[t]he Negro' had stronger and more freely movable toes than any other race, which, he argued, was evidence of their being less evolved, and which led him to compare them to '"four-handed" Apes'. Haeckel argued that humans were closely related to the primates of Southeast Asia and rejected Darwin's hypothesis of Africa. some Anthozoa and Vermes) where we are authorised to interpret each embryological form directly as the historical representation or portrait-like silhouette of an extinct ancestral form. This group lasted until 1933 and included such notable members as Wilhelm Ostwald, Georg von Arco (1869-1940), Helene Stöcker and Walter Arthur Berendsohn. 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