He is also all good meaning He cannot sin nor do evil. Required fields are marked *. Instead, when you reference material, you may put the quotation in a footnote with the complete Chicago-style reference. In this paper I will further explain the problem of evil and examine the concept of the free will argument. This is not an example of the work written by professional essay writers. Do you feel socializing with your colleagues is beneficial in creating a better learning environment. In these statements, Rowe suggests the inductive, probabilistic view of the evil argument justifies atheism (defined as either a rejection of theism or a position that deities do not exist). *You can also browse our support articles here >. Your email address will not be published. For instance, murder is an evil brought about by man and therefore it is a moral evil. It is deemed necessary that man go through struggles in order to gain strength, a means of soul promoting, or to be conscious of certain emotions. This is called “the problem of evil.” Aquinas argues that the God he has proven to exist is entirely consistent with the presence of evil in the world. Not everyone hold the same beliefs or interpretations of Adam, Eve, and the forbidding fruit scenario. In your paper, following closely, step-by-step, the texts and arguments of Aquinas, you will first demonstrate the existence of God from any of the Five Ways or from the De Ente ch. The survey included the question “If you could ask God only one question and you knew he would give you an answer, what would you ask?” The most common response, offered by 17% of those who could think of a question was “Why is there pain and suffering in the world?” (Strobel 2000, p. 29). Philosophy of Religion: An Anthology. Home — Essay Samples — Social Issues — Evil — The Problem of Evil This essay has been submitted by a student. He has no control over natural evil and is completely powerless to prevent its occurrences. Topic: Aquinas demonstrates the existence of a God that is altogether good, omnipotent, and omniscient. He argues that God, even being omnipotent, could not create a world with free beings that never chose evil. Natalie Casas Professor B. Chung Phi 2011 2 March 2006 The Problem of Evil To some evil … From these it follows that a good, omnipotent thing eliminates evil completely, and then the propositions that a good, omnipotent thing exists, and the evil exists, are incompatible (174).” For sake of clarity, I will define the terms “good” and “evil”, as they will be used throughout this paper. In order to do so, he finds a statement that could make the claim a reasonable one and makes an addition of a necessarily true proposition to Mackie’s. As Mackie states, “Good is opposed to evil, in such a way that a good things always eliminates evil as far as it can, and that there are no limits to what an omnipotent thing can do. Study for free with our range of university lectures! Philosophy of Religion: An Anthology. The religious believers assume that God is omniscient, omnipotent, and omnibenevolent, yet evil exist. “The Free Will Defense.” Pojman, Louis P. and Michael Rea. Philosophy of Religion: An Anthology. Welcome to Essay-Paper.com, the academic writing service that helps and guides scholars to a attain first class  marks. The Problem of Evil. Skills: Reading, researching, and writing. The argument simply says that God is not responsible for the evil that takes place, but rather, beings are at fault; at some point in life, a being will be faced with a situation that requires moral choice and the ability to act freely, and they may possibly choose evil (Cain). In conclusion, the problem of evil exists because man believes in an omnipotent, omniscient, and omnibenevolent creator. This problem of evil is a very important issue and needs to be solved. The aspects that will be focused on in the essay will be the logical problem of evil where the concept of God and the key attributes that are in conflict with the existence of evil will be discussed. Hume, David. Why could not have God create the physical world (in which we live) as such? On another note, I believe that it is reasonable to say that it is better that the world contain beings with significant freedom than that it contains only automata. Thus, we are not “all-good”. Thus, the problem of evil leads to a contradiction in at least one, if not all, of the attributes of God (that being omnipotent, omniscient, and omnibenevolent). Disclaimer: This work has been submitted by a university student. The problem of evil also gives way to the notion that if hell exists then God must be evil for sending anyone there.I believe hell exists in light of the idea that God is holy. The evidential version of the problem of evil (also referred to as the probabilistic or inductive version), seeks to show that the existence of evil, although logically consistent with the existence of God, counts against or lowers the probability of the truth of theism. God uses evil as a vehicle for bringing about the greater good. Is He both able and willing? The evidential challenge (also known as the inductive argument) seeks to show that the existence of evil counts against the probability of the truth of theism (defined as the belief in at least one deity). According to ‘Incompatibility’ or ‘Logical’ versions of the Problem of Evil, E is logically incompatible with God’s existence (Mackie 1955). “Free Will and the Problem of Evil.” Religious Studies: An International Journal for the Philosophy of Religion (2004): 437-456. Plantinga, Alvin. Mackie, details the problem of evil as a simple case of logical inconsistency, which arises from the attributes of God all being true at the same time. Good is interpreted as anything in harmony with God’s character, will, and goal, whereas evil is any state or condition that is contrary to His character, will, and goal. Heaven is supposed to be a “perfect” world. However, a literary analysis of the work s of prominent philosophy gurus has provided one with the realization that inference is just as important as direct conclusions from definite statements. The existence of evil seems to indicate that God is not preventing this evil. As used in this paper, free will is identical to freedom of choice, or the ability to do or not to do something. God is justified in permitting evil and suffering in terms of promoting character development; it seems that His goal would be to bring man to a point spiritual well-being and maturity. Registered office: Venture House, Cross Street, Arnold, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, NG5 7PJ. He says that “The heart of the Free Will Defense is the claim that it is possible that God could not have created a universe containing moral good (or as much moral good as this world contains) without creating one that also contained moral evil. Simply stated or broken down, the problem of evil claims that the following prepositions cannot be held consistently together: If God has these features, then it follows that God can and should want to prevent evil. We are the most reliable web custom writing service providers, guaranteeing original top notch mark papers. Perhaps no one will really understand God’s reason for allowing some things to happen. God’s creation of beings with considerable free will is something like the greatest gift that can be given, or in another sense, the greater good. For instance, in order for a person to know “hot”, they must inevitably know “cold”. Describe the function of the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers. Polkinghorne (14) defines it as the process of reconciliation between evil and good. Do you have a 2:1 degree or higher? Moreover, evil occurs because God does not want to compromise this free will be preventing evil. A sample logical challenge would in the following form: 2. In his argument from evil, David Hume inquires about the existence of God, stating that the assumed God would not possibly allow evil to exist. On theone hand, there are metaphysical interpretations of the term: God isa prime mover, or a first cause, or a necessary being that has itsnecessity of itself, or the ground of being, or a being whos… This is called “the problem of evil.” Aquinas argues that the God he has proven to exist is entirely consistent with the presence of evil in the world. This paper will discuss the problem of evil, state the main claims that have been argued by John Mackie and Alvin Plantinga, and show some of the arguments that other scholars have raised with regard to the problem of evil. The term “God” is used with a wide variety of differentmeanings. Plantinga, in his response against Mackie, suggests that atheologicans (specifically Mackie) are wrong to believe that evil and God are incompatible. Moral evil is evil that results from an act, or failure to act, by man. Therefore, there cannot possibly be such a good and powerful God. Be sure you represent the problem in all of its due force; consider looking up the formulation attributed to Epicurus in David Hume’s Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion. Thirdly, it is argued that God cannot actualize a world with free will and no presence of evil. For objective purposes of consistency, I will only touch basis on Mackie’s response to evil being the direct result of freedom. 2. In the body of your paper, you may paraphrase the quotation, but you MUST explain the meaning of the text you are referencing and how it establishes your point. The problem of evil is the notion that, how can an all good, powerful, loving God exists when evil seems to exist also. On the other hand, there is the logical challenge to belief in God, which says that it is both impossible and irrational to believe in the existence of a good, powerful God with the existence of evil in the world. Despite Plantinga’s success and acceptance, his free will defense still presents a conflict between reasoning and the characteristics of God. That means that believing in E and believing in God is like believing in a five-sided square.Most philosophers today reject this argument (Rowe 1979: 335). Why does our world contain so much evil? This response would probably be the safe way out, but again it does not necessarily pose a solution to the problem of natural evils. So does this fact alone contradict God’s omnibenevolence? In other words, God could have created a world where man had the ability to choose between two actions (good or bad), but from his omnipotence, He would always see it that man choose what was right. The problem of evil arises because the concept of God seems to entail that there should be no evil in the world. Plantinga’s argument is a valid justification for God’s permission of evil, but he seems to speak only in terms of one nature of evil. The Problem Of Evil Cannot Be Solved Philosophy Essay Evil is a problem, not because there is evil in the world or that there is so much of it in the world. The problem of evil has been defined by different scholars. Natural evils (as described earlier in the paper) or disasters, for instance, cause great destruction, but there is nothing that man could have done to prevent them. Firstly, it is written in the Book of Genesis that God created man in His image. Without being aware of the one, chances are you would not know how to distinguish between the two. He maintains the idea that God granted free will, but then asks, “If God has made men such that in their free choices they sometimes prefer what is good and sometimes what is evil, why could He not have made men such that they always freely choose the good (Mackie, 178)?” Being all powerful, God could have created a world with both free will and no signs of evil. This makes evil a twofold problem. Whence then is evil (150)?” Being that there is more evil than good in the world, it is difficult to see how one can reconcile the existence of evil with the existence of an all-powerful, omnibenevolent God. Author: Created by pippaatkin. Evil can be seen as an instrument of God to correct, purify, and instruct (as a parent punishes his/her child). The problem of evil, therefore, tries to show that there is no logical way in which good and evil can exist in the way they are presented in religion. From simple essay plans, through to full dissertations, you can guarantee we have a service perfectly matched to your needs. The logical challenge attempts to demonstrate that the assumed propositions lead to a logical contradiction and cannot therefore all be correct. In addition to this thought, a world without evil may not be a feasible world for those who possess free will. Taking this into deliberation, man (being created in His image) has the ability to do wrong and create evil. The concept implies that an omnipotent God does not assert its power to intervene in choice. Nevertheless, there are several problems that result from a defense of this sort, which primarily revolve around the notion that God foreknows all choices that we will make and all events that will occur. The most credible of these is the free will defense, which states that there are no contradictions in God’s attributes; He is capable of destroying evil, but not at the expense of taking away free will. Gale, Richard M. “Freedom and the Free Will Defense.” Social Theory and Practice: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal of Social Philosophy (1990): 397-42. “The problem of evil” is one of the most discussed objections to the existence of God and is a top reason many unbelievers give for their unbelief. “The Problem of Evil and the Problem of God.” Journal of Applied Philosophy (2007): 435-438. The Problem of the Evil ...The most weighty of the arguments against God’s existence is the problem of evil. There is much evil that is not inflicted by man. Your email address will not be published. The problem of evil can be distinguished between two types of philosophical aspects or challenges to faith in God: the evidential challenge and the logical challenge. Don't use plagiarized sources. For Mackie, the existence of evil is logically incompatible with the existence of a Christian God. 4 (it is recommended that you use the First Way). In Evil and Omnipotence, Mackie argues that the traditional conceived God cannot possibly exist with so much evil and suffering in the world. I am sure that there is free will and absolutely no evil and suffering. The purpose of this paper is to show that evil is everywhere, and that, while good is also in abundant supply, evil will never totally be removed from society. In this case, in order for a person to possess happiness or feel sorrow, they must have been faced with a situation that evokes such feelings or emotions. Belmont: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, 2008. Philosophy William L. Rowe illustrates this challenge as such: 1. The larger is how anyone can go to heaven. Examples of natural evils are sufferings caused by diseases or natural phenomena such as earthquakes, hurricanes, tornadoes, and tsunamis. In this essay, I will examine the argument for the Problem of Evil, a possible theodicy against the argument, and reply to the theodicy. The problem of evil exists because of the fall of man. The dilemma of the problem of evil is, if God is perfectly loving he must wish to abolish evil. Earlier in the paper, it was established that God, particularly the Christian God, is all-knowing, all-powerful, and all good. When it comes to the problem of evil and God’s existence, there are many questions and concerns that come to mind. Furthermore, I will present J. L. Mackie’s argument regarding the issue, while exploring Alvin Plantinga’s defense. As men… 3. This is because the problem of evil puts up n ideology that God and Evil cannot exist in one place. The larger is how anyone can go to heaven. On the contrary, natural evil arises through no fault by man. Looking for a flexible role? The problem simply stems from basic beliefs or assumptions pertaining to the attributes of God: God is perfectly good, omniscient, and omnipotent. Free resources to assist you with your university studies! If such notion were true, why would not God step in to intervene? If this is true, then what do you consider heaven? The argument gives the impression that God knows that evil occurs, God does not want evil to occur, and God has the ability to prevent evil, but evil still exists because God wants us to have free will. But if no one can choose otherwise, then no ability to choose really exists. Belmont: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, 2008. But what exactly is God’s nature? Show More. This is not an example of the work produced by our Essay Writing Service. Of all the atheistic arguments, this is the one that has been around for longest, that has had the most words written about it, and that draws the most diverse responses from Christians. Order Now. 1545 Words 7 Pages. Explaining all the natural and personal disasters without a belief in God and why evil exists is paramount to impossible. But if that were the case, people would not really have free will; they would know they could not freely do anything they wanted. 22nd Jun 2015 Registered Data Controller No: Z1821391. And at this rate of thinking, his argument would only hold strong for the theist himself. Therefore, free will does not exist. Problem of Evil Evil has always been with humanity. In his essay, Mackie examines what he calls “so-called” solutions to the problem: evil being a necessary counterpart to good, the universe being better off with some evil, evil acting as a means to good, and evil being the result of human free will. The problem is not found in the lack of balance between good and evil in the world. So even if God wants to prevent evil, he cannot because free will is important. Read this Philosophy Essay and over 89,000 other research documents. We're here to answer any questions you have about our services. Designed and Developed by. At the same time, evil existing alongside God seems to detract from both his omnipotent and good status. Speaking in terms of evil, I will further examine two types of evil, as one will be introduced later on in the paper. The problem simply stems from basic beliefs or assumptions pertaining to the attributes of God: God is perfectly good, omniscient, and omnipotent. Get Your Custom Essay on, © Copyright Eikra 2020. The Problem Of Evil Essay Samples. This problem is traditionally labelled The Problem of Evil. A popular response to the problem of evil contends that there is a necessary connection between free will and the existence of moral (or human-caused) evil. Journalist and best-selling author Lee Strobel commissioned George Barna, the public-opinion pollster, to conduct a nationwide survey. According to Mackie, God’s inability to offer this possibility is a rational contradiction and limits not only his power, but his goodness as well. The Problem of Evil argument focuses on the fact the existence of evil in the universe contradicts with God’s existence. The problem of evil is usually seen as the problem of how the existence of God can be reconciled with the existence of evil in the world. Theist Problem Of Evil Essay. From the first man that walked upon the earth up to the present day, evil has been part of life. Speaking in terms of free will, what does it mean to necessarily be free or possess free will? So it seems that either God does not exist, or His characteristics are very different from what we think. Not all natures of evil, however, can be explained in this way. If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help! Our academic experts are ready and waiting to assist with any writing project you may have. Perhaps if one can explain God’s reason for allowing evil, then the belief in God may still be rational. Secondly, God granted free will, but has no means of intervening or preventing the consequences; if this was false, then evil would not exist. These tend to fall, however, into two main groups. The free will defense successfully solves the problem. Evidential arguments claim that there is no good reason for God’s permission of evil. But some object that the fact of evil in the world stands in clear contradiction to such a God. VAT Registration No: 842417633. There have been many proposed solutions to problem of evil, one being the free will defense/argument. The problem of evil is usually seen as the problem of how the existence of God can be reconciled with the existence of evil in the world. The free will defense illustrates that God allows evil for the sake of human free will. More so, there is a possibility that such knowledge is beyond our means of reasoning at present. There exist instances of intense suffering which an omnipotent, omniscient being could have prevented without thereby losing some greater good or permitting some evil equally bad or worse. In my paper, I have examined the problem of evil and the concept of the free will argument, using Mackie and Plantinga’s arguments on the subject. SPECIAL RESTRICTION: You are prohibited from using quotations from any text in the body of your paper. God is perfectly good. If evil exists then God cannot be all perfectly loving. Then He is malevolent. ...Philosophy Essay - The Problem of Evil Part A - Compare and contrast the theodicies of Augustine and Irenaeus Both Augustine and Irenaeus attempt to explain the existence of evil in their theodicies, though have different explanations for its existence. 147-152. Problem of Evil Argument Essay. Many philosophers, particularly J.L. I have given reason to both accept and reject the notion that it can be logically established that the existence of both evil and God are not incompatible. One of the most controversial ideas of medieval Christians was … 181-199. Created: Oct 1, 2018. Philosophy Therefore, there does not exist an omnipotent, omniscient, wholly good being (Rowe, 201). According to this argument, God must allow His creatures to do evil sometimes in order to promote free will. Ultimately, perhaps God allows evil and suffering so that in the end, man will be born again and accept God’s grace and live by His word. There is a belief that moral and natural evil exists because there is a vacuum left where God does not exist. An all-powerful God would destroy evil. However, the conclusion that we’re wrong about God follows only if God has no good reason for allowing evil. You will then solve the problem of evil using research and argumentation from Aquinas and Aristotle, drawing upon contemporary peer-reviewed secondary literature and perhaps other philosophers such as Augustine. 4. An omniscient, wholly good being would prevent the occurrence of any intense suffering it could, unless it could not do so without thereby losing some greater good or permitting some evil equally bad or worse. Furthermore, it is possible that even an omnibenevolent God would want to create a world that contains evil, only if such would bring moral goodness. And if so, then it is possible that God has a good reason for creating a world containing evil (Plantinga, 190-191).” It is not to be taken in any way that Plantinga declares his proposition is true, but rather logically sound. Preview. Your paper will present the problem of evil in its strongest possible terms and then resolve it. No plagiarism, guaranteed! In a sense, I think of it as a limitation on his power because He created something that He has no control over or at least it seems that He does not. From this, such a God should want to prevent evil, yet much evil exists. There are many possible replies and solutions to the problem of evil, but I will only limit focus to one particular argument. Gillett, Grant. It is obvious that such a world was not created, so what does this say in terms of God’s power? The problem of evil also gives way to the notion that if hell exists then God must be evil for sending anyone there.I believe hell exists in light of the idea that God is holy. Then He is impotent. Essay text: Traditional Christianity teaches that the Devil is a fallen angel, part of God's creation that went wrong. The traditional monotheistic response to the problem of evil is that human free will leads to evil in the world, as in the case of Original Sin. If God is all-powerful, all-knowing and perfectly good, why does he let so many bad things h… But some object that the fact of evil in the world stands in clear contradiction to such a God. The problem of evil is the notion that, how can an all good, powerful, loving God exists when evil seems to exist also. He could not eliminate evil and suffering without eliminating the greater good of having created beings with free will. We've received widespread press coverage since 2003, Your UKEssays purchase is secure and we're rated 4.4/5 on reviews.co.uk. Does this inability take away from His omnipotence? This is an exmplar essay I have written for GCSE Religious Studies students in response to the title ‘The existence of evil and suffering proves there is … It seems that either choice contradicts the traditional belief in God. Some critics believe that this argument fails due to the fact that God could give us free will and still stop people from doing evil. Schellenberg, J. L. “The Atheist’s Free Will Offence.” Internal Journal for Philosophy of Religion (2004): 1-15. The problem stems from the concept of an omnipotent, omniscient and perfectly good and just God; that if such a God exists, then evil should not exist. Type of paper: Essay Topic: God, Ethics, Evil, Suffering, Criminal Justice, World, Punishment I will split it into two main parts; the problems raised for a religious believer by the existence of evil and the solution or answer to these problems. Hick’s theodicy, the soul-making view, states that God intentionally placed this evils on earth so that we can over come temptations. Belmont: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, 2008. The Problem of Evil is an argument that shows that God cannot be either all- powerful, all-knowing, and/or all good. Many philosophers, such as Mackie, argue that if one abolishes God himself, or at least some of His attributes, then evil needs no explanation. Would it be safe and logical to say that God, being the Creator of all things (nature in particular), is to blame? You will receive no credit from quoting and paraphrasing alone. The free will defense, in my opinion, is a partial success. Is He able, but not willing? If God is all-good and all-powerful, how come there is … This essay is a conclusive look at the problems and contradictions underlying a belief in God and the observable traits of the world. I challenge the soundness of the argument, especially two particular premises which deal with omnipotence and omnibenevolence. He asks, “Is He willing to prevent evil, but not able? Free Essay On The Problem Of Evil. Reference this. You can view samples of our professional work here. There have been many proposed solutions to problem of evil, … This essay will be an analysis into the Problem of Evil and a counter rebuttal to objections levied against the Problem of Evil. The Riddle of Epicurus: The Problem of Evil Introduction The problem of evil has been addressed by philosophers for centuries. In response, some philosophers offer justifications for God permitting evil. Teach the text to your reader, don’t just read it to them. Explain The Problem of Evil - Essay. Type of paper: Essay Topic: Ethics, Evil, People, Navaho, Treatment, Religion, Suffering In this essay I am going to examine the problem of evil. [Summarize the Argument of the Problem of Evil. Why does it contain any evil at all? Cain, James. Company Registration No: 4964706. The Christian Philosophy’s Stance on the Problem of Evil ; The Concept of Evil and its Problem in Night ; The Temptation of the Garden: Good, Evil, and Aslan in The Magician’s Nephew ; Evil and Immoral Characters in the Play “Othello” by William Shakespeare These objectors argue that since there are so many cases of significant pain and suffering in the world that God could easily prevent, the fact that all this evil was not prevented means it is very unlikely (if not impossible) that God exists. Your paper will present the problem of evil in its strongest possible terms and then resolve it. Philosophy Essay - The Problem of Evil Part A - Compare and contrast the theodicies of Augustine and Irenaeus Both Augustine and Irenaeus attempt to explain the existence of evil in their theodicies, though have different explanations for its existence. 173-180. Then, again following Aquinas, you will proceed to demonstrate that the God thus proven to exist necessarily possesses certain attributes, and specifically you must show God’s omnipotence, omniscience, goodness, and perfection. Yes, the evil that exists around us is a consequence of the abuse of our freedom. The traditional monotheistic response to the problem of evil is that human free will leads to evil in the world, as in the case of Original Sin. The purpose of this essay will be to evaluate the logical problem of evil and free-will defense. Problem of Evil. In efforts to refute the logical problem of evil, Plantinga tries to show that Mackie’s argument is not contradictory. Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UKEssays.com. Read this Philosophy Essay and over 89,000 other research documents. He has no control over natural evil arises through no fault by man:... 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Answers Ltd, a world with free will and absolutely no evil and examine the concept of God free-will.! Theist himself this paper I will only limit focus to one particular argument reason for allowing,... No one can choose otherwise, then what do you consider heaven of! That you use the first way ) existing alongside God seems to detract from both His and... Will really understand God ’ s reason for allowing some things to happen since,. Names and Numbers of reconciliation between evil and free-will defense writing service here! The issue, while exploring Alvin Plantinga ’ s permission of evil in Book. That is altogether good, omnipotent, omniscient, and tsunamis implies that an omnipotent, omniscient and! A logical contradiction and can not actualize a world with free beings that never evil... God must allow His creatures to do wrong and create evil evil because., however, the academic writing service the problem of evil essay otherwise, then no ability to choose really exists are and. God intentionally placed this evils on earth so that we ’ re wrong about God follows only if wants... Beings with free will Offence. ” Internal Journal for the problem of evil essay of Religion ( ). Who can we hold accountable for such occurrences much evil exists then God can not possibly be such a.! Problems and contradictions underlying a belief that moral and natural evil exists because there is will..., while exploring Alvin Plantinga ’ s power for those who possess free will s existence, are! View, states that God, is a possibility that such a God should want compromise.